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  • Atmel smart meter solution

    Solid-state electricity meters that provide energy and power measurements and data displays are evolving and there are many different solutions/architectures on the global market today. When the mains is not connected, some meters may require a battery to ensure that the real-time clock (RTC) is running to support functions such as a€?no power readinga€?.

    The basic electronic instrument directly replaces the traditional mechanical instrument. The product still requires manual reading and is typically based on an 8-bit microcontroller such as the Atmel?? AVR?? microcontroller

    Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) meters provide one-way communication, enabling power providers to automatically and remotely meter through different communication solutions such as RF wireless, power line carrier and GPRS

    Smart meters use the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) architecture, enabling utility companies to implement two-way communications as well as spread taxes, fault monitoring, prepayments, and remote disconnects. Smart meters can also communicate directly with other meters and home display devices.

    The state-of-the-art metering system is a smart grid that requires full deployment of smart meters in an AMI architecture to provide improved monitoring, communication and control of a unified system from utility to home, including building energy efficiency systems, home automation and smart appliances. A smart grid is a predictable, self-healing grid that enables demand management and allows management of local generation, updates, and storage.

    As implementations and architectures become more complex, meters require additional processing power and larger flash memory for the software stack. They also need to support communication protocols and remote firmware updates. In addition, smart meters require a large number of serial communication ports to connect different communication modules such as RS-485, RS-232, IRda, PLC, GPRS and RF.

    Although the meters are powered by the mains, they must be able to draw power from the battery during power outages and initial calibration. In this case, the RTC must be running. If you plan to install millions of smart meters globally, the power consumption will be given higher priority.

    Atmel

    Features and advantages

    Excellent ADC performance, including:

    High-performance embedded 12-bit ADC with 16-bit capability when oversampling

    2.0M samples/second with a resolution of 12 bits

    Differential input channel to eliminate common mode noise for improved accuracy

    Dual ADC (or dual sample hold) allows simultaneous measurement of voltage and current

    Integrated programmable gain (1X to 64X) eliminates the need for an external gain stage and no longer affects external gain settings

    Single-phase and multi-phase meters are supported by increasing the number of ADC channels on the microcontroller.

    The scalable microcontroller family supports any instrument from entry level to AMI.

    A fully integrated power line communication (PLC) system-on-a-chip (SoC) solution with all-digital capability for optimum sensitivity, high temperature stability and high performance.

    Large flash supports a variety of communication protocols including RF, PLC and GSM.

    High-performance solutions reduce power consumption, especially when using batteries.

    Embedded RTC replaces expensive external RTC.

    A variety of communication peripherals (UART, SPI) connect various communication modules, such as PLC, RF, IrDA, RS-485 and smart cards.

    RF solutions are in line with industry standards.

    AtmelCryptoAuthenTIcaTIon products offer high security solutions that meet AES, DES, RSA, ECC, SHA-256 and RNG standards.

    Security solutions include AES, DES, RSA, ECC, SHA-256, RNG

    High EMC performance reduces the need for external protection.

    A superb, easy-to-use development model speeds time to market.

    The energy measurement is performed by the measurement module. Depending on the required accuracy, measurements can be made by an internal ADC embedded in the microcontroller (via various current and voltage sensors). Alternatively, measurements can be made by an external component (ASIC or ADC).

    Single-phase and multi-phase solutions can be implemented using the same technology, and the number of current sensors and ADC channels required will increase accordingly.

    The display requirements are ever-changing, either by using a segment LCD controller embedded in the microcontroller or by using an LCD display embedded with a "glass-on-chip (COG)" for added flexibility.

    The external non-volatile memory (NVM) shown in the block diagram is used for data caching as well as remote firmware updates. The NVM can also store calibration data for measurements. Please note that most AtmelAVR microcontrollers are embedded in EEPROM, so external components may not be needed.

    The communication module relies on a metering infrastructure that can be used in AtmelAMR and AMI architectures. The security module will verify and encrypt the communication information.

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